Gibbs A. Williams, Ph.D.


The findings of this research support those of Balint (1955, page 35) who indicates that parapsychological phenomena occur in highly ambivalent and intense situations in which projection and idealization are employed.

The findings also confirm the observations of Ehrenwald, Ullman and Coleman (Ullman, 1976a, page 263) that a continual preoccupation with occult experiences are most likely associated with character types of those who are most ego weak including the "withdrawn, borderline, Schizoid amd narcissistic."

Additionally, the findings Support Ullman's two generalizations concerning psi experience. (Ullman, 1976b9 page 263)
(1) Psi experiences occur in response to ''impending loss or threat'' either to an affective bond or to the self; and
(2) the paranormal event is an ''emergency response . . . to sustaining affective bonds or threat to the physical integrity of the organism.''

The process of projecting the self, cathecting a parallel external event (equivalence of meaning), mirroring this union back, and experiencing it as having happened simultaneously accompanied by an awe response is related to other similar occurrences. Among these are: peak experiences, metanoia, reframing, sartori, 'therapeutic events' (major insights that represent the culmination of numerous mini insights that have resulted in a major breakthrough marking a significant turning point in treatment.

It has been demonstrated that the psychodynamics of the self utilizing the method of contextual analysis and explained by the principle of synthetic causality is fruitful in understanding these kinds of experiences from a naturalistic perspective.

Many researchers on the subject of creativity have concluded that the creative act involves some combination of primary and secondary processes. Kris 's formulation of ''regression in the service of the ego'' (Kris, 1944, page 240) is a condensation of the psychodynamics of one formulation of the creative process.

Schmeidler, in an article entitled ''ESP Breakthroughs, Paranormal Effects in Real Life'' relates these events to the creative process. She states: ''The psychodynamics of spontaneous cases...[are] seen to be ... like those of dreams (i.e. an interplay between latent desires, feeling or meaning, and manifest symbols.'' (Schmeidler, 1972, page 223)

Noy (1969, page 156) advances the idea that the primary process like the secondary process has its own developmental evolution. He also suggests that the primary process has a synthetic function as part of ego [self] integration and assimilation.

peak experiences, metanoia, reframing, sartori,